Post-Classical

Frequently Asked Questions, v1.3

April 18, 1995

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. What's new in this version?
  2. What's the purpose of the post-classical mailing list?
  3. What is post-classical music?
  4. What are some representative works of post-classical music?
  5. Where can I buy music discussed on this list?
  6. Are there any pc-related magazines I can subscribe to?
  7. What literature is available pertaining to post-classical music?
  8. Are there any videos pertaining to post-classical music?
  9. What Internet resources exist related to post-classical music?
  10. What do all these descriptions of musical genre mean?
  11. Who are the contributors to the FAQ?

WHAT'S NEW IN THIS VERSION?

VERSION HISTORY

v1.1 (May 8, 1994): initial release of the FAQ
v1.2 (May 30, 1994): vital revisions and additions
v1.3 (April 18, 1995): general revisions and additions

As there are quite a few changes to this FAQ, with two entirely new sections, we're very open to comments. Are the new sections useful? Do you have anything else you'd like to add to the FAQ?


WHAT'S THE PURPOSE OF POST-CLASSICAL MAILING LIST?

The post-classical mailing list was initiated February 12, 1994, and of this update includes 120 subscribers. It's purpose is to provide a forum for the discussion of artists who incorporate elements of classical instrumentation and structure, but whose music typically lies outside traditional classical boundaries.

This FAQ is updated and posted occasionally to the post-classical mailing list. Requests for the latest version should be made to mal@emf.net. The FAQ will not be available at cs.uwp.edu.

Submissions and corrections to the FAQ should be sent directly to the post-classical list at post-classical@cs.uwp.edu. Be sure to include the word "FAQ" somewhere in the subject header.

Subscription requests to the post-classical list should be sent to: post-classical-request@cs.uwp.edu


WHAT IS POST-CLASSICAL MUSIC?

Post-classical music, as defined by this list, is music incorporating elements of classical structure and instrumentation thru relatively unconventional means. It is not meant to represent any specific genre or period of music, but rather a cross-section of musical styles loosely defined by the following criteria:

Derivative
artists generally considered outside the classical genre but whom incorporate traditional classical components in a predominantly unconventional manner. Instrumentation may either be acoustically or electronically generated, but usually fused with another musical style.

Experimental
artists generally considered within the classical genre but whom work outside the boundaries of traditional classical structure. Instrumentation is usually acoustically generated, but often by unconventional means.

In practice, there are several readily identifiable musical "genres" which fall under the post-classical heading, or overlap with it. These include musique concrete, minimalism, indeterminate and aleatoric composition, sound ecology, ambient and post-industrial musics, electro-acoustic music and several other areas. In general, "composed" music is post-classical while "improvised" music is not, but there are enough works that don't fit these tidy pigeonholes to ensure there's no precise boundary. More details can be found in section 10.


WHAT ARE SOME REPRESENTATIVE WORKS OF POST-CLASSICAL MUSIC?

This is by no means an exhaustive list but a cross-reference of artists and their works (in alphabetical order) intended to provide a satisfactory introduction to post-classical music. Selected artists were based upon two or more suggestions from members of the post-classical list. This list will be revised and updated as members of the pc-list deem necessary.

ARTIST/TITLE/LABEL

COMPILATIONS


WHERE CAN I BUY MUSIC DISCUSSED ON THIS LIST?

Many of the mail-order places listed below specialize in a few selected styles of music and may not serve as comprehensive sources for the music discussed on the post-classical list. See descriptions for relevant info.

CD CONNECTION
telnet: cdconnection.com, login: cdc

The CD Connection comes to us via the Internet and has a large selection of domestic and import CDs that pertain to post-classical music. The biggest benefit of CDC (aside from it's large selection) is its easy searching capabilities.

ISOLATION TANK
P.O. Box 336, Jenkintown, PA 19046, USA. Phone: 215-886-0914.

Isolation Tank is new mail order company that specializes in industrial, trance, electronic, experimental, ambient, and gothic music. A quick perusal through their catalog found titles by Laibach, Autopsia among others.

METAMKINE
13 rue de la Drague, 38600 Fontaine, France.

Metamkine distributes recordings of musique concrete, electro-acoustic and post-industrial experimentation from artists like Bernard Parmegiani, Luc Ferrari, P16D4 and Jim O'Rourke. Their own label has released two full-size CDs and an excellent series entitled "Collection Cinema pour l'oreille", with over a dozen mini-CD releases to date.

NEW ALBION RECORDS
584 Castro, #515, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA. Phone: 415-621-5757, Fax: 415-621-4711

A label that specializes in 20th Century classical material like John Cage, Reich, Dresher, etc. Wayside (see below) carries a good portion of their selection as well.

NONSEQUITUR INC.
PO Box 344, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103, USA.

The umbrella foundation acts as home to ?What Next? Recordings and the compilation CD series, The Aerial, which has featured work by artists as diverse as The Hafler Trio, Derek Bailey and Nicolas Collins. ?What Next? have releases by the Deep Listening Band, improvisors Ikue Mori & Tenko, the excellent Annea Lockwood, and others. They also distribute other items recorded by these artists.

ODD SIZE RECORDS
24 rue de Laghouat, 75018 Paris, France.

They run a label, and a distribution service. Their mail-order catalogue runs to over 130 pages, with a wide variety of industrial, experimental and avant-garde recordings (including labels like Subterranean, RRR, Staalplaat, United Dairies, Sub Rosa and Multimood) and publications, taking in avant-jazz, musique concrete, and even On-U Sound along the way.

OZONE
1036 W Burnside, Portland, OR 97209, USA. Phone: 503-227-1975, Email: mschulte@delphi.com

PLAYING BY EAR/EXTREME USA
1244 Mojave Dr., Colton, CA 92324, USA. Phone: 909-824-8749, Fax: 909-824-0127

Playing By Ear has a wide variety of in-house selections covering all areas of the musical spectrum. If it's Paul Schutze, Art Zoyd, Shinjuku Thief, or Arvo Part you're looking for, chances are you'll find it here. PBE is also an official US distributor for releases on the Extreme label.

ReR MEGACORP
79 Beulah Road, Thornton Heath, CR7 8JG, UK. Phone: +44 (0181) 771 1063 Fax: +44 (0181) 771 3138

Chris Cutler's Recommended Records has become ReR, distributing and mail-ordering much the same sort of stuff as before; avant-classical; electro-acoustic; Rock in Opposition; groups like AMM, Cassiber, Faust, Magma, Negativland or The Work. They also still publish the ReR Quarterly, a well-respected magazine and accompanying music compilation.

SOLEILMOON RECORDINGS
PO Box 83296, Portland, OR 97283, USA. Email: soleilmoon@aol.com Web: http://www.stat.washington.edu/stanford/iso/Sol.html Fax: 503-335-0805, Phone: 503-335-0706

Soleilmoon is probably the best source in the USA for industrial-related material. The likes of Morton Feldman, Giacinto Scelsi, C-Schulz, and Diamanda Galas can be found as well.

THESE RECORDS
387 Wandsworth Road, London, SW8 2JL, UK. Phone: 0171 622 8834

As well as the well-stocked and wide-ranging shop, open 12-5 Monday to Saturday, These Records do the same job with their mail-order catalogue. Lots of stuff from labels like ReR and Rec Rec, plus experimental artists from Faust through contemporary classical composers through improv groups to less categorisable types.

WAYSIDE MUSIC
PO Box 8427, Silver Spring, MD 20907, USA.

Wayside has a large selection that caters to the styles of experimental progressive rock, new age and ambient industrial. A good source for the likes of Art Zoyd, Daniel Denis, Tod Dockstader, Glenn Branca, and Elliot Sharp. Also check out PC-related artists on the New Albion label.

TOWER
The nearest Tower Records should have a lot of the music discussed here assuming you (or the Tower rep) can locate it :-)

ARE THERE ANY PC-RELATED MAGAZINES I CAN SUBSCRIBE TO?

Listed below are a variety magazines covering many of the artists discussed on the post-classical list. Thanks goes to Brian Duguid and Ashok Divakaran for providing much of this information.

AUDION
1 Conduit Street, Leicester, LE2 0JN, UK.

If it's diversity you're after then Audion is a definite possibility. Although its favourite genre remains '70's progressive rock, it's tentacles reach out into most areas of innovative new music. Featured artists have included John Cage, Xenakis, Lightwave, Steve Hackett, Arthur Brown, Peter Michael Hamel, and the forefather of noise music, Luigi Russolo.

COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Very in-depth technical journal on all aspects of computer music, but with some reviews of recordings and events, and announcements of new releases. Quarterly, $11 per issue/$42 per year.

EST
Email: BD1@mm-croy.mottmac.co.uk, Web: http://www.hyperreal.com/zines/EST/

EST is a large format zine devoted to all forms of experimental, avant-garde, industrial and post-classical music. Published by Brian Duguid, a regular contributor to PC-list!

FORCED EXPOSURE
PO Box 9102, Waltham, MA 02254, USA

This zine's tastes are best illustrated by some of the likes of Albert Ayler, Eugene Chadbourne, God, Kronos Quartet, Z'Ev. Record reviews are a cut above other zines' efforts, and the book/video reviews are particularly welcome.

I/E
2300 N. Yucca, Chandler, AZ 85224, USA

If the conjunction of ethnic and avant-garde music is of any interest to you, this is probably the zine to get. I/E supports an attractive design and includes interviews and reviews from the likes of Jon Hassell, Mo Boma, Life Garden, Jeff Greinke, Steve Roach, Paul Schutze, and O Yuki Conjugate.

MUSIC FROM THE EMPTY QUARTER
P.O. Box 87, Ilford, Essex, IG1 3HJ, UK. Tel/Fax +44 (0) 81 518 3092

The Rolls-Royce of the zines aimed at the younger side of the electronic music audience. Everything from musique concrete to electrobeat is covered here. Focus centers on the reviews which are both timely and intellectually written.

MUSICAL TIMES
79 Macaulay St., London SW4 0RU, UK. Also c/o Virgin Mailing and Distribution, 10 Camptown Rd, Irvington, NJ 07111, USA.

Another British journal, slick and Option-like. Articles and interviews tend to be relatively superficial, though there have been some useful material. About 60-70% contemporary classical music in each issue. Monthly, $5 per issue/$60 per year.

ND
P.O. Box 4144, Austin, TX 78765, USA Web: http://www.hyperreal.com/zines/ND/

This is one of the bigger underground electronic-ambient magazines. Very eclectic in style with an abundance of reviews of the latest releases. Some of the reviews lack depth, but overall ND gives more bang for the buck than most.

OPTION
1522-B Cloverfield Blvd., Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA

PC-list's own Scott Lewis writes the majority of post-classical reviews in this alternative zine! Option manages to be both intellectual and unpretentious in its tastes. Also includes lots of ads and a slick design to boot.

PERSPECTIVES OF NEW MUSIC
School of Music DN-10, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

An American scholarly journal, with material ranging from highly technical discussions of compositional methods and approaches, to reviews of recordings and events and less technical articles. A solid read, but might be a bit technical for non-musicians. Bi-annual, $15 per issue (+$10 for CD)/$37 per year.

REVUE ET CORRIGE
25 rue Docteur Bordier, 38100 Grenoble, France

For those that can read French, this is a must-read. Coverage includes the likes of Etant Donnes, Art Zoyd, Henry Kaiser, Un Drame Musical Instantane, etc. A bit more artsy and intellectual than the rest of the pack.

TECHNOLOGY WORKS
PO Box 998, Fullerton, CA 92632-0998, USA. Email: pmoore@odetics.com (Paul Moore - editor)

Look for reviews by PC-list's Ashok Divakaran in this multi-dimensional zine! Covers a broad array of electronic music, from techno to ambient industrial. Good reviews and extremely solid interviews. Reviews cover everything from Amorphous Androgynous to John Watermann.

TEMPO
Published by Boosey and Hawkes, 295 Regent St., London W1R 8JH, UK. Also 24 E. 21st St., New York NY 10010, USA.

The best journal on contemporary classical music that I've come across. Very well-researched articles, generally balanced and informed reviews. The emphasis is more on European works and events. Quarterly, $6.50 per issue/$25 per year.

VITAL
PO Box 11453, 1001 GL Amsterdam, The Netherlands Web: http://www.vpro.nl/www/arteria/V2onW3/Archief/ArchiefTexten/Vitals/Vitals.html

VITAL is a Dutch public-domain zine which aims to span both the academic realm and the underground. The music covered is strictly in the electronic/post-industrial vein and the reviews are somewhat technical and detail-oriented. Includes a healthy mix of both big and obscure names.

Other magazines to keep an eye out for
H23, GODSEND, RESONANCE, and THE WIRE.

WHAT LITERATURE IS AVAILABLE PERTAINING TO POST-CLASSICAL MUSIC?

This is a non-comprehensive list of books dealing with various topics of the artists and music being discussed on the post-classical list. Thanks goes to Patrice Roussel and Brian Duguid for providing the bulk of this information.

ALL AMERICAN MUSIC - COMPOSITION IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY: John Rockwell
Vintage Books (1983) (ISBN 0-394-72246-9)

Each chapter of this book incorporates a theme and uses a composer/band to illustrate the theme. A good source of material on innovators such as Ernst Krenek, Milton Babbit, Elliot Carter, John Cage, Ralph Shapely, Frederic Rzewski, David Behrman, The Art Ensemble Of Chicago, & others.

AMERICAN MINIMAL MUSIC: Wim Mertens
Kahn & Averill (London) / Alexander Broude (NY) (ISBN 0-900707-76-3) (1983)

Brief but informative factual discussions of the music of the four best known minimalists (Glass, Reich, Riley, Young) plus a slightly conventional discussion of compositional prehistory (Schoenberg, Webern, Stockhausen, Cage) and abstruse ideological philosophy drawing on the ideas of Adorno, Deleuze and Lyotard. Give me Jacques Attali any day. :-) [BD]

AMERICAN ORIGINALS: Geoff Smith & Nicola Walker-Smith
Faber and Faber (ISBN 0-571-17088-9) (1994)

Interviews with pre and post minimalist composers inc Ashley, Glass, Reich, Riley, Young, Cage, Branca, Crumb, Lucier, Monk, Oliveros, Wolff, Lentz etc.

THE ART OF NOISES: Luigi Russolo
Pendragon (ISBN 0-918728-57-6) (1986)

Reprints the writings of Futurist Russolo, whose words (if not his actual music) pre-figured several major developments in modern avant-garde composition: use of noise, collage of non-instrumental sounds, environmental sounds heard as music etc.

BREAKING THE SOUND BARRIER: Battock, Gregory, ed.
(ISBN 0 525 47598 2)

This book covers the regulars like Babbitt and Carter, but also has articles by Brian Eno and Steve Reich, material on Fluxus, and info on the Minimalists.

ELECTRONIC AND EXPERIMENTAL MUSIC: Thomas Holmes
Charles Scribner's Sons (1985)

A flawed guide, but useful. Lists several important out-of-print electronic, new music and musique concrete albums, and explores the history of Theremin, Schaeffer, Cage, Stockhausen etc. without being afraid to mention names like Merzbow and Throbbing Gristle.

ELECTRONIC MUSIC: Andy MacKay
Control Data (1981)

Roxy Music man's well-informed guide to the field stretches from Stevie Wonder to Iannis Xenakis. Lots of nice illustrations, but a bit dated.

EXPERIMENTAL MUSIC: CAGE AND BEYOND: Michael Nyman
Schirmer (UK 1974, US 1981); reprint due May 1995

A classic guide to 50s and 60s experimental music.

EXPERIMENTAL POP: Billy Bergman and Richard Horn
Blandford Press (1985) (ISBN 0-7137-1550-2)

Opens with a solid introduction of the granddaddies of experimental music (Ives, Varese, Stravinsky, Cage) and then focuses primarily on concepts and composers of the 1960s (Reich, Cage, Lucier, Branca, Monk, Chatham, Jarre, Ashley etc). The book is directed more toward experimental music than experimental pop.

MODERN MUSIC - A CONCISE HISTORY FROM DEBUSSY TO BOULEZ: Paul Griffiths
World Of Art (1978) (ISBN 0-50-20164-1)

Excellent coverage of both contemporary and experimental classical music with some nice illustrations. This book serves as a good reference for those curious about the likes of Stravinsky, Concrete and Electronic Music, and computer-aided composition.

THE MUSIC OF JOHN CAGE: James Pritchett
Cambridge University Press (ISBN 0 521 41621 3)

Self-explanatory :-)

NEW PERSPECTIVES IN MUSIC: Roger Sutherland
Sun Tavern Fields (ISBN 0-9517012-6-6) (1994)

History of 20th century avant-garde composition, covering Luigi Russolo, Stockhausen, Cage, Xenakis, Parmegiani, Cowell, Nono, serialism, early electronic music, minimalism, musique concrete, sound sculpture, live electronics and more. Communicates enthusiasm, easy to find fault with but very useful.

NEW SOUNDS: John Schaeffer
Virgin Books, 1990; ISBN 0-86369-375-X

A comprehensive directory of relevant artists, their recordings, and information pertaining to experimental music. Despite it's potential Windham Hill new age-ish bias, it's still the only book which mananges to mention Hildegarde von Bingen, Pauline Oliveros and John Zorn on the same page. John Schaeffer hosts the "New Sounds" radio show in NYC on 93.5 FM.

OPERA ON THE BEACH: Philip Glass
Faber and Faber (ISBN 0-571-15493-x) (1987)

Glass isn't an inspiring writer, and this lengthy account of the musical and philosophical ideas behind his three major operas (Einstein on the Beach, Akhnaten, Satyagraha) frequently palls. Includes librettos, musical examples, photos and a catalogue of works.

SONIC TRANSPORTS: Cole Gagne
de Falco Books (ISBN 0-9625145-0-0) (1990)

Lengthy interview and articles about Glenn Branca, "Blue" Gene Tyranny, Fred Frith and the Residents. Packed with information on all four, now slightly out of date. Enthusiastic writing style can be a bit irritating at times!

SOUNDPIECES 2: INTERVIEWS WITH AMERICAN COMPOSERS: Cole Gagne
(ISBN 0-8108-2710-7).

While the first volume centered on academic American composers, this volume features in-depth interviews with Glenn Branca, Anthony Braxton, Lou Harrison, Pauline Oliveros, Terry Riley, Sun Ra, James Tenney, LaMonte Young, John Zorn, and others. Long discographies and plenty of cool facts and trivia.

TAPE DELAY
UK SAF Publishing

Probably the best guide to the industrial end of the post-classical spectrum.

TRACKINGS: Richard Duffallo
(ISBN 0 19 505816 X)

Includes recent interviews with Kagel, Crumb, Earl Brown, Xenakis, Stockhausen, Cage (ok, not so recent), and lots of others (Carter, Lutoslawski, etc).

TWENTIETH CENTURY MUSIC: H.H. Stuckenschmidt
World University Library (1969) (ISBN not available)

Another comprehensive classic covering many modern composers. Older than the Griffiths' book listed above but with many similarities. A recommended collection which packs hoards of information into 250 pages.

THE VOICE OF NEW MUSIC: Tom Johnson
Het Appolohuis (ISBN 90-71638-09-x) (1989)

Reprints of Village Voice new music articles from 1972-1982 by Tom Johnson, characterised by their straightforward open-mindedness. A crucial document of all the minimalists who DIDN'T achieve international fame.


ARE THERE ANY VIDEOS PERTAINING TO POST-CLASSICAL MUSIC?

MYSTIC FIRE 4-VIDEO SET
Features Glass, Monk, and the guy who did Wolfman. Possibly directed by Peter Greenway.

PUT THE BLOOD IN THE MUSIC: Charles Atlas
A PBS production that may or may not be available on home video. Features Sonic Youth, the Ambitius Lovers, John Zorn and Hugo Largo, plus interviews with Lydia Lunch, Kramer, Glenn Branca, Karen Finley and others.

WHAT INTERNET RESOURCES EXIST RELATED TO POST-CLASSICAL MUSIC?

A very comprehensive selection of links is available as part of EST magazine.

i.Artists

Several more to be added here at a later date!

ii.Labels / Organisations

iii.Magazines

iv.Other


WHAT DO ALL THESE DESCRIPTIONS OF MUSICAL GENRE MEAN?

A Post-Classical Glossary, by Brian Duguid

Whenever anyone starts labelling music, they're always attacked by people who hate "categories", so to pre-empt any flames, the following are *not* categories, they're just terms used to identify common musical characteristics and traditions. :-)

Acousmatic Music
Coined by composer Francois Bayle to describe music following the musique concrete tradition whereby the original sound sources are unidentifiable and the music can only be heard as "abstract sound".

Ambient
Erik Satie desired to create "furniture music" that would colour people's surroundings without demanding their attention. In the 70s, Brian Eno created "ambient music" with the aim that it could be either listened to attentively or ignored, as the listener desired, and which emphasised timbre, texture and a sense of space, over rhythm, melody or harmony. "Ambient" was one influence that inspired "New Age" music in the early 80s (which was distinguished by NOT rewarding attentive listening :-), and in the late 80s was reappropriated by dance techno artists, at first by producing "ambient mixes" by simply removing the drums from the music. Other composers: Harold Budd, Jeff Greinke, Vidna Obmana. The term "isolationism" has recently been popularised to refer to ambient music that actively espouses feelings of withdrawal and anti-positivity. Isolationists include: Thomas Koener, Main, Lull.

Computer Music
Music in which the computer takes the role of a composer and/or performer rather than just an instrument. An example: Alejandro Viñao's Son Entero for four voices and computer.

Electronic Music
When the term was first coined in the early 50s, it distinguished the electronically-produced and tape-manipulated sounds of Karlheinz Stockhausen and others from the naturally-produced and tape- manipulated sounds of the French musique concrete composers. By the late 50s, "electronic music" referred to both types of music; by the early seventies the use of electronics had inspired hundreds of musicians outside the "serious" avant-garde, and many people nowadays think of "cosmic music" (Klaus Schulze, Tangerine Dream etc) when the term is used.

Fourth World Music
Term coined by trumpeter/compose Jon Hassell to describe his attempts to create new music from the fusion of Western and Third World traditions, the result could often be described as "ethno-ambient". Others: Paul Schuetze, O Yuki Conjugate, Jeff Greinke.

Indeterminacy
Music where certain elements are left to chance by the composer, pioneered by John Cage. In "chance composition", elements of the score are determined by rolling dice, casting the I Ching etc, but indeterminate music may also incorporate chance elements into the performance. There's a fine line between this and improvisation, where the composer leaves certain parameters open to the performer's choice, not to chance; Morton Feldman often used the latter approach. Also called "aleatoric" music.

Industrial Music
Originating with the Industrial Records label in 1977, industrial music combined punk rock and musique concrete to express aggression and alienation. Many industrial musicians favoured an abstract, collage-based approach to music that owed a lot to musique concrete's compositional techniques.

Isolationism
See Ambient.

Just Intonation
Music that employs tones that are exact harmonic ratios apart; conventional composition uses the system of equal temperament, where ratios between notes are not necessarily exact integers. Just intonation reinforces overtones and leads to "unusual" harmonic effects. Composers: Lou Harrison, La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Tony Conrad, etc.

Microtonal
Music that uses intervals smaller than a semitone. Quarter tones were used by Bloch, Bartok and others, but others include Xenakis, Partch, Penderecki etc.

Minimalism
First used to describe a movement in visual art that emphasised simple shapes, areas and colours; then applied to compositions that relied on minimal elements e.g. long drones employing only a few notes; repeated short melodies and rhythms etc. Composers such as Philip Glass and Steve Reich relied in the early seventies on the use of simple processes to generate their music, hence "minimalism" is often the same thing as "systems" or "process" music. Other major minimalist composers include La Monte Young and Terry Riley.

Musique Concrete
Music created using recordings of pre-existing sound material, usually not instrumental or electronic in origin. Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry pioneered the concept in the late 1940s, first using records but swiftly moving on to tape. Other concrete composers include Bernard Parmegiani and Luc Ferrari.

New Complexity
Composers like Brian Ferneyhough and Richard Barrett whose music is very complex, often very fast, and in some small way, a reaction against movements like minimalism and religious composers (Part, Tavener, Gorecki etc).

Plunderphonics
Term coined by Canadian composer John Oswald to refer to musique concrete that relies for its sources entirely on other people's music. The politics of copyright often lead to connections being drawn between the music of people like Oswald, and more "conventional", pop-based musical appropriation. Other composers: John Wall, Nicolas Collins, Tape-beatles.

Post-industrial
Any music influenced by "industrial music" as practiced by SPK, Cabaret Voltaire, Test Dept, Throbbing Gristle etc. The original industrial groups combined antagonistic and alienated attitudes to society with the rock / musique concrete musical free-for-all pioneered by early- 70s groups like Faust. The "industrial" groups had mostly moved into new areas by 1985, but several musical genres were spawned: electronic body music and industrial rock took industrial aggression in a more populist direction, while the "post-industrial" groups opened up an area of "amateur" concrete; ambient, abstract and experimental musics approached from a non- classical perspective. Key names: Zoviet France, the Hafler Trio.

Serialism
Developed by Schoenberg and Webern, the practice of using a twelve-note series as the mathematical basis of the entire composition, later extended by Boulez, Stockhausen and others, who sought to extend serialist organisation to every musical parameter. Serialism and atonalism were initially the same thing, and serialism led to a much greater appreciation of the importance of tonal colour (timbre) in music.

Stochastic Music
Unlike indeterminacy, stochastic composition employs a multitude of individually random details which taken together obey statistical and probabilistic laws to create quite specific musical textures. Iannis Xenakis is the best known composer to use stochastic methods.

WHO ARE THE CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FAQ?

Beast Of Eden Christopher Hanis Harvey Thornburg
Richard Barnett Malcolm Humes Stephane Vuilleumier
Mike Borella Scott Lewis Matt White
Henry Burdett Peter Miller Gabriel Yedid
Michael DeMurga Patrice L. Roussel Dan Young
Ashok Divakaran Daniel Selzer Alex Zbyslaw
Brian Duguid Jason S. Shapiro Joseph Zitt
Bill Hsu Andrew Brooks

Special thanks to Dave Datta for providing the site to maintain the post-classical mailing list.

The post-classical FAQ was originally compiled by: Paul Rafanello (808state@delphi.com) Tim Zeigler (zeigler@ucssun1.sdsu.edu)

and is currently maintained by: Malcolm Humes (mal@emf.net) Brian Duguid (BD1@mm-croy.mottmac.co.uk)


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